- With the 8 mm clasts, some abrasion of the femur heads, and the separation of tibia and fibula occurred, but after one additional hour with the large clasts, articular ends were broken, leaving an assemblage of broken ends and shafts: articular ends - Fig. 1.9b, h, i, n, t; and shaft fragments - Fig. 1.9c, o, u.
- Two new humeri from Pakistan are said to retain ancestral characters similar to those seen in Proconsul and Kenyapithecus, with the proximal shaft curving laterally and anteriorly (that is, convex laterally as in Old World monkeys), and a flat deltoid plane, whereas the distal articular surface has several derived great ape features.
- Neither could the lower jaw slide backwards and forwards in a saw-like motion because the "hinge" between the lower jaw and skull (the joint between the quadrate bone on the skull and articular bone of the lower jaw) was tight when the jaws were shut.
- The articular membrane is usually produced by a separate tormogen cell.
- This articular member of the Synbranchidae family is native to most areas of Central and South America, favouring the more tropical regions with temperatures into the high 20sC.
- Articular ends broken at the epiphyses are only counted if they exceed the number of ends lacking articular surfaces.
- Abbreviations: a, angular; antfo, antorbital fossa; ar, articular; d, dentary; emf, external mandibular fenestra; ec, ectopterygoid; f, frontal; j, jugal; l, lacrimal; m, maxilla; n, nasal; nf, narial fossa; p, parietal; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; popr, paroccipital process; prf, prefrontal; q, quadrate; qf, quadrate foramen; qj, quadratojugal; sa, surangular; saf, surangular foramen; sf, subnarial foramen; sq, squamosal.
- A. insectivore mandible (20); B. broken tip of ascending ramus of insectivore mandible (75); C. femur head with impact damage on edge of articular surface with a crack extending from it (75); D. abraded edge of greater trochanter (38); E. femur and pelvis (11); F. broken end of femur shaft with little evidence of rounding (75); G. broken end of pelvis with crack extending down from uneven break but little evidence of rounding (75); H. two distal humerus fragments (12).
- Between adjacent segments, the cuticle remains membranous and becomes infolded to form the articular membrane.
- At its base the seta is attached by a ring of articular membrane.
- Articular ends of limb bones have been partly eaten away, resulting in local damage very different from the corrosive effects of digestion, and processes such as the olecranon process of the ulna or the medial epicondyle of the humerus are often totally destroyed.
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